Thinking, Fast and Slow
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System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control.
Detect that one object is more distant than another. Orient to the source of a sudden sound. Complete the phrase “bread and…” Make a “disgust face” when shown a horrible picture. Detect hostility in a voice.
Answer to 2 + 2 = ? Read words on large billboards. Drive a car on an empty road. Find a strong move in chess (if you are a chess master). Understand simple sentences. Recognize that a “meek and tidy soul with a passion for detail” resembles an occupational stereotype.
The gorilla study illustrates two important facts about our minds: we can be blind to the obvious, and we are also blind to our blindness.
The best possible account of the data provides bad news: tired and hungry judges tend to fall back on the easier default position of denying requests for parole. Both fatigue and hunger probably play a role.
Intelligence is not only the ability to reason; it is also the ability to find relevant material in memory and to deploy attention when needed.
The general theme of these findings is that the idea of money primes individualism: a reluctance to be involved with others, to depend on others, or to accept demands from others.